Caffeine and its metabolites as potential contributors to Parkinson’s disease resistance


  • Concentrations of caffeine, its demethylation metabolites, and trigonelline were significantly lower in subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations (LRRK2+) than in unaffected controls (UC) and those without the mutations; these may be markers of PD resistance.

Why this matters

    The LRRK2 gene mutation is considered causative of PD but expresses incomplete penetration; identifying environmental factors that modulate its expression or effects on PD pathophysiology will potentially aid in PD prevention or mitigation.

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