Distinguishing seizures with paroxysmal arousals from NREM parasomnias


  • Seizures with paroxysmal arousals (SPAs) and simple arousal movements (SAMs) have different characteristics including movement progression, sleep stage at onset, duration, limb involvement, and behaviors.

Why this matters

    The correct identification of SPAs and SAMs is necessary for appropriate clinical management, however, to date no studies have characterized the distinguishing features that assist in diagnosing sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) and disorders of arousal (DOA).

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